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CAS No.:157728-63-7
Product Name : Thymidine, a-hydroxy-3',5'-O-[1,1,3,3-tetrakis(1-methylethyl)-1,3-disiloxanediyl]-
Molecular Formula : C22H40N2O7Si2

CAS No.:157728-63-7

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Company Information
U.S. Borax Inc.
U.S. Borax, Inc. is the leading producer of borates in the world. Borates are derived from borax, a mineral salt that the company mines and refines at locations in California and Argentina, then ships throughout the world. Uses for borates include glass and fiberglass production, ceramic glazes, detergents, soaps, agricultural nutrients, and pest control products. The company, famous for its "20 Mule Team" trademark and the long-running "Death Valley Days" radio and television program, is owned by British mining giant Rio Tinto plc.

U.S. Borax traces its origins to the year 1872, when a gold prospector named F.M. Smith discovered a borax deposit at Teel's Marsh, Nevada. After establishing a mine there, Smith soon became a leading producer of borax, which was then being used in gold processing, ceramic glazes, detergents, water softening, soaps, and food preservation.

Smith's San Francisco-based sales agent, W.T. Coleman, was also developing his own borax operations, and during the 1880s he acquired a number of borax mines in the California desert, including one at Death Valley. This rich deposit was located 165 hot, arid miles from the nearest train station at Mojave. To bring ore to the railroad, Coleman's employees devised a carefully engineered transport system. This was the famous "20 Mule Team," which actually consisted of 18 mules and two horses. The animals pulled three wagons, one of which held water, that could haul more than 20 tons of ore from the mine to the railhead. The 185-foot long line of mules, horses, and wagons journeyed for ten days across rough trails that ranged from below sea level to 4,000 feet above, in heat of up to 130 degrees. Use of the large mule teams lasted only from 1884 to 1888, when production at Borate, California, superseded the Death Valley mine's output.

In 1888 Coleman went bankrupt, and his borax holdings were subsequently purchased by F.M. Smith (now known as "Borax" Smith), who established the Pacific Coast Borax Company two years later. The firm used the 20 Mule Team brand name on its products, which it began marketing abroad in 1896 when Smith established a partnership with a British company. Three years later Smith and a group of British investors also formed Borax Consolidated, Ltd., which assumed ownership of Pacific Coast Borax, as well as the mining interests of Desmazures and Groppler and other companies that operated mines in Turkey, Chile, and Peru. Borax Consolidated subsequently acquired additional operations in France and Argentina.

In 1906 Pacific Coast Borax began building a rail line, the Tonapah & Tidewater Railway, to haul ore in California and Nevada. Though the project was never fully completed, what was built did enable the company to more easily transport borax ore to existing railways at Barstow, California, and Beatty, Nevada.

In 1913 "Borax" Smith's financial empire collapsed, and his shares in Borax Consolidated, Ltd. were sold on the London stock exchange. Smith had held controlling interest in the firm and its subsidiary Pacific Coast Borax, and the sale put ownership of both firms completely in British hands.

Pacific Coast Borax continued to prosper following the departure of Smith, however. In 1914 the Death Valley Railroad was built to transport borax to the new Ryan mine that had been developed in the area. The company's production also reached 110,000 tons of borax per year during World War I. In 1923 Pacific Coast Borax consolidated its refining operations with the construction of a new facility in Wilmington, California, near Los Angeles.

The company's production capacity grew again in 1925 after a doctor digging a well discovered the world's largest known borax deposit. It was subsequently acquired by Pacific Coast Borax, and a mine and mining town were constructed. The site, appropriately named Boron, California, became operational in 1927, at which time the company shut down most of its other mines. Pacific Coast Borax also diversified around this time into hotel management, opening a luxury resort facility in Death Valley called the Furnace Creek Inn.

In 1930 the company took its marketing efforts to the new medium of radio by sponsoring "Death Valley Days," a dramatic serial that chronicled the exploits of prospectors and cowboys in the Old West. The program caught on with the public and was broadcast for many years, ultimately switching over to television where it lasted until 1968.

By the 1940s, Pacific Coast Borax was primarily mining two sites, at Boron and at neighboring Trona, California. The company's mines operated much like coal mines, with workers taking an elevator to an underground cavern where the ore was extracted from the earth. The ore was then sent to the surface in chunks, where it was crushed and screened to pebble size for shipment to the company's refinery at Wilmington. Working conditions in the desert were hot on the surface, but underground the temperature was a constant 72 degrees, with 25 percent humidity. The company's employees were paid well, with Pacific Coast Borax providing housing and food at a discount rate. The price of borax, which had been $700 a ton during the 20 Mule Team days, was now less than $50 due to the greater efficiency of processing and transport.

Borates, in addition to being used in metal processing, soaps, and water softening, were now utilized for many other purposes. As much as half of the quantity produced went into making glass and enamel glazes, in the latter case as a replacement for the more hazardous lead. Additionally, borates were increasingly used in fertilizers, in leather production, and for washing citrus fruits to help prevent mold and decay. The U.S. government had also reportedly begun employing borates for use in defense projects, in particular as a component of rocket fuel.

In 1956 Pacific Coast Borax was merged with U.S. Potash, another mining concern owned by Borax Consolidated, Ltd., to form U.S. Borax & Chemical Corp. U.S. Potash had been acquired by Borax in 1930 to develop potash deposits in North America. As part of the arrangement, ownership of the reconfigured company would be shared with a New York banking group headed by Lazard Freres & Co., which was investing $7 million for an 8.5 percent interest in the company. A loan of $16 million was also taken out, which would help the firm with new plans to convert the Boron, California mine into an open-pit operation, enabling greater recovery of ore. Manufacturing facilities were also expanded to handle the higher quantity of mineral being extracted. The U.S. government had reportedly put pressure on the British owners of Pacific Coast to transfer control at least partly to American hands, given the huge deposits held by the company and their importance to national defense.

The early 1960s saw the company building its international business with shipping terminals constructed in Wilmington, California, and Rotterdam, Netherlands. Borax NV was established as a sister company in Europe, along with a joint venture called Deutsche Borax. In Turkey, a major borax source was found in 1960, which was subsequently run by the nationalized Etibank company, U.S. Borax's only major competitor. In 1966 U.S. Borax also sold its Death Valley-based resort to the Fred Harvey Corporation.

U.S. Borax and Chemical was acquired in 1968 by RTZ Corporation (later known as Rio Tinto plc) through a merger with Borax, Ltd., U.S. Borax's principal owner. Rio Tinto was the world's largest mining concern. The Potash operations were subsequently sold to the Canadian government.

In 1980 U.S. Borax spent $80 million to construct a boric acid production plant at its Boron, California mine site. U.S. Borax was the world's leading producer of boric acid, which was largely used in met
Contact Information
Contact Person:Mr. sir
Street Address:Member of The RTZ Corp. plc, 26877 Tourney Rd., Valencia, CA, 91355-1847, USA
Country: United States
Zip:CA, 91355-
Business Type:Manufacturers
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